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ATypI 08 St Petersburg

Programme
Sessions by theme

Starts at 09:30, 17 September 2008,
at Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, St Petersburg, Russia

Preliminary content, subject to change.

| all | Arabic | Cyrillic | Education | Greek | History | Methods | Other | Personalities | Revivals | Screen | The Old · The New | TypeTech by ATypI | TypeTools by DTL | TypeTools by FontLab | Workshop | World |



Arabic

Bengisu Keleşoğlu, İpek Torun
Ottoman calligraphy from a modern perspective

Saturday 20 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | Session B13 in Palace B

This study focuses on the tradition of illustrating symbols with type as calligraphy, called ‘hatt’ in the Ottoman period. Because creating the image of men were forbidden by the religious beliefs, there stood the need for representing images by ‘hatt’ and therefore the calligraphy done by the masters were accepted as artwork. Breaking the traditional rules of using type and image seperately, type were used instead of images. Each calligraphic work, representing the images of animals and objects, has its own symbolic meaning. In this study the relationship between the imagery and the verbal meaning of Ottoman caligraphy are examined in the sense of the semiotics of the contemporary understanding. Theme: Arabic | 50 minutes


Cyrillic

Yuri Gherchuk
Cyrillic letter in Russian culture

Friday 19 September | 09:40 – 10:30 | Session B01 in Palace B

Cyrillic came to Rus’ with the Holy Writ; that defined the public attitude toward it, as a collection of sacred, inviolable signs, and slowed down the evolution of its letterforms. That is why even the Westernisation of the printing type undertaken by Peter the Great centuries later, did not affect the type of the clerical books, which kept its mediæval look. As to the “civil”, secular type, often developed abroad, it followed the evolution of the Western, Latin type—from Baroque to Art Nouveau. The æstheticism of early 20th century cultivated the artistic, handcrafted lettering, and the constructivism imparted a new significance to the sans serif types available with the printers. A serious interest to the development of new typefaces, to the Cyrillisation of the best Western designs, and the adaptation of Cyrillic to the new typesetting technologies resumed only in the second half of the 20th century. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Irina Fomenko
Reforming writing, reforming typography, innovation by decree?
Digital collection of the first books printed in Civil Type

Friday 19 September | 11:00 – 11:50 | Session B02 in Palace B

This presentation is an overview of “The First Books Printed in Civil Type”, the digital collection prepared by the Rare Book Department of the Russian State Library in 2008. The collection consists of 32 digital versions of the first Russian books printed in Civil Type, published in Moscow in 1708–1711. This was a period in which the forms of new Russian printing (‘civil’) type started to settle. Peter the Great, the emperor of Russia, personally chose foreign books for translation to Russian, determined the appearance of the editions, their size, form and cover design. The digital renderings of the books contain many details important for understanding the essence of Peter’s typographic reform. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Olga Florenskaya
Vernacular domestic lettering
Cyrillic alphabet and Russian typographic tradition

Friday 19 September | 12:00 – 12:50 | Session B03 in Palace B

Olga Florenskaya has opened the topic of Vernacular domestic lettering in the mid-1980s, when she started collecting the particular examples of non-professional forms of lettering in the cityscape. She has published the book “Psychology of domestic lettering”, where she has described and analyzed the numerous examples taken from the real life. Most of the items of her collection had a practical use. Olga pays a particular attention in her research to Cyrillic peculiarities of vernacular lettering. The session will be illustrated with numerous items from Olga’s collection. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Tagir Safayev
Discovering the Cyrillic letterforms of Cheltenham through the century

Friday 19 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | Session B04 in Palace B

The Academy was created in circa 1908-10. The typeface was based on Sorbonne, which represented the ATF rework Cheltenham of 1896 and Russian typefaces of the mid-18th century. In 2008, I designed the Cyrillic extension for NYTimes Cheltenham. Between these dates — a century. The lecture focuses on the diverse approaches to the understanding Cyrillic letterforms based on the Cheltenham family through the last century. The novelty in typography is really modern not only and rather by itself, but it discovers and builds new links with the past and exists (until it exists at all) due to these links. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Alexandra Korolkova
A walk along the fence

Friday 19 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | Session B05 in Palace B

There are many fences in Russia, of different kinds and purposes. Also, the Cyrillic alphabet contains a lot of stems; it was a feature of Cyrillic since the script appeared, and it is sometimes called “Cyrillic Fence”. Now the local designers suppose it to be one the main problems of Cyrillic. There were some tries to change the lettershapes but they were quite unsuccessful. Maybe there are some ways to make “fence” look better without radical changes of lettershapes? The presentation is rather entertaining than serious one. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Petr Chobyt'ko
Role and significance of calligraphy
in contemporary graphic design education

Friday 19 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | Session B06 in Palace B

Calligraphy exerts a positive—correcting and stimulating—influence on the development of creative skills of the students of high schools and art colleges. Such conclusions have been drawn from the speaker’s 36-year experience of teaching lettering and calligraphy at various educational facilities in Russia and Ukraine, to the students belonging to different age groups. References to the legacy of Paul Luhtein, the speaker’s own teacher and mentor, as well as the views of master calligraphers Villu Toots and Albert Kapr, the opinions of scholars, speaker’s own observations serve to corroborate and explain this phenomenon. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Alexey Dombrovskiy
Art of the First Letter
Russian decorative book initial used in 15th–early 18th centuries

Friday 19 September | 17:20 – 18:10 | Session B07 in Palace B

Cyrillic printed initial caps by 15–17th centuries as the Civil prototype. First slavic capitals as serif (1494). Francisco Scorina’s modernization of cyrillic type and capital letters (1517–1525). Gothic motives in Moscow floriated letters by Ivan Fyodorov and his followers (1564–1677). Alternative cyrillic typefaces at Moskovia’s western remote area (17th cent.). “Sobornoye Ulozhenie” by czar Alexey Mikhaylovich: latin style of capital letters in Russian corpus juris (1649). The Civil type’s initials in Peter the Great’s editions (1708–1725). Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Dmitry Kirsanov
Modern serif in Russia

Saturday 20 September | 09:30 – 10:20 | Session B08 in Palace B

What Russian typefaces can be considered as the first Modern Serifs? What types influenced more on the development of this style in Russia: Didot or Bodoni? What reasons have induced Bodoni to create Cyrillic font? Whether Didot typefaces were used in Russian printing houses of the beginning of 19th century? What Russian typefaces of Modern Serif have been revived during the Soviet period and what are the new designs? The author will try to answer these questions. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Konstantin Startsev
Typography in the student livre artiste projects
Contemporary typography in the book studies. Based on the experience of St. Petersburg State University (Faculty of Philology and Arts)

Saturday 20 September | 10:30 – 11:20 | Session B09 in Palace B

In his lecture “Typography in the student livre artiste projects” Konstantin Startsev describes his methods of teaching typography at the Department of Graphic Design of St. Petersburg State University. Both the images projected on screen, and the physical samples of the actual books designed and manufactured by the students illustrate his talk. The works of Konstantin Startsev’s students won many awards at the national and international design competitions. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Maxim Gurbatov, Anna Chaykovskaya
Book of letters
The parting from the era of wood type

Saturday 20 September | 11:40 – 12:30 | Session B10 in Palace B

We were very impressed with history of old typographical sorts, wood and metal letters. Throughout its history, they were important elements of European culture. Now they are not wanted. We want to express gratitude them. We have old typographic wood and metal letters and make large art objects called, for example, The Tetragrammaton, The Monument of Unknown Accountant, The Four Seasons in Russia. The object called “MЖ” consists of letters M and Ж only — there are the letters beginner the words Man and Woman in Russian. There are mainly large compositions — to 2 m in breadth. We dedicated our project to Gutenberg’s era. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Timothy Donaldson
Resurrection pencil
What I learned from the “marks that speak”

Saturday 20 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | Session B11 in Palace B

During research for my recently published book, “Shapes for sounds”, I investigated the Glagolitic alphabet created by the brothers Cyril and Methodius. This alphabet was the mother of Cyrillic. I learned to write the letters, an activity that took on a life of its own and led to a body of interpretation bordering on the obsessive. My talk will focus on the history, development, and subsequent abandonment of the Glagolitic alphabet and will show the new drawings, sculptures, scripts and typefaces I have produced as a result of this investigation. Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes

Anna Shmeleva
Script typefaces and graphology

Saturday 20 September | 17:20 – 18:10 | Session B14 in Palace B

As far as a script typeface is a derivative from human handwriting, it can be graphologicaly analysed. Graphologycally speaking, any script face designer constructs an imaginary personality that is not realised by the readers but it’s influence on them can be noticable. Typefaces can be sanguine or phlegmatic or choleric or melancholy. Of course we should never forget that the method is most applicable for real handwriting, not for type designs – but using it for typefaces provides a lot of new information. And even more: armed with graphology, can we turn from analysys to synthesis? Theme: Cyrillic | 50 minutes


Education

Akira Kobayashi, Nadine Chahine
Linotype type design student demonstration
Public demonstration

Thursday 18 September | 12:00 – 13:00 | Demonstration D01 in W2

ATypI and Linotype have invited ten excellent, typographically-minded junior or senior Cyrillic-writing students to participate in a typography-intensive workshop that includes an introduction to the world of letterforms and the basics of type design. The invited workshop participants will work closely with Linotype’s Akira Kobayashi and Nadine Chahine to create and refine their own designs. The workshop will conclude with a public viewing of the workshop results on Thursday 12:00–13:00 — come and see the progress the students have made! Theme: Education | 60 minutes

Gerry Leonidas
Researchers in typography and typeface design
Poster sessions

Thursday 18 September | 18:00 – 18:45 | Panel session P01 in Palace A

Following the successful first forum for researchers in the fields of typography and typeface design at the Brighton conference, the Education committee would like to offer again the opportunity to researchers to present informally their work. Whether you are at the beginning of your research project, halfway through, or recently concluded, we will provide an informal space configured for short presentations or briefings that set off discussions in a small group; and wall space for researchers to hang posters outlining their research throughout the conference. We would expect to see an A2 or A1 poster explaining the objectives and methodology of the project (and the findings, if you're at that stage). Theme: Education | 45 minutes

Gerry Leonidas
A few things I’ve learned about typeface design

Saturday 20 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | Session B12 in Palace B

The St Petersburg conference will nearly coincide with the ninth anniversary of the MA Typeface Design programme at the University of Reading. The programme overlaps with a period of maturity and consolidation in typeface design, and some important steps of an area of practice moving towards becoming a field of study. I will argue that the programme embodies and promotes a fundamentally significant approach to both studying and practicing typeface design, with echoes in the wider typographic world. Theme: Education | 50 minutes


Greek

George D. Matthiopoulos
An illustrated history of Greek book design
15th–20th century

Sunday 21 September | 11:40 – 12:30 | Session B16 in Palace B

Because of the Ottoman conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean basin, for more than four centuries Greek typography developed outside the Greek territories. Until the national independence of Greece in the 19th century, the Greek book had maintained a dual identity: publications for the European scholarly public and books for the Greek readers both in Europe and in occupied Greece. Thereafter, Greek book design was primarily within the national borders and followed the European trends to some degree but remained quite parochial until the middle 20th century. The presentation will discuss these developments and will explore the aesthetic differences of European multilingual editions and Greek liturgical or lay editions for the Greek public with many illustrations which cover the whole period. Theme: Greek | 50 minutes


History

Gerard Unger
A thousand years ago...
Letterforms in inscriptions from the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries

Saturday 20 September | 09:30 – 10:20 | Session A08 in Palace A

The time between the Carolingian renaissance and the Gothic is sometimes seen as a long-drawn-out period of transition as regards inscriptional letterforms. Romanesque art and architecture are highly varied, so much so indeed that it is difficult to speak of a single style. Romanesque capitals display just as much variety. Despite this, it is possible to discern a stable model that was used throughout most of Europe for at least two hundred years. It is separate from its Roman forerunners and exhibits a range of influences that made themselves felt in Europe after the end of the Roman Empire. Romanesque capitals — a neglected model. Theme: History | 50 minutes


Methods

Paul Luna
Absolutely no type
The threshold of a new era

Friday 19 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | Session A06 in Palace A

Books produced by early phototypesetting systems publicized the fact that they were produced with ‘absolutely no type’. What letterforms were chosen for these new systems? How did they relate to existing type designs? What opportunities were taken (or missed) in the creation of new founts? How did the new typefaces for new machines affect the designers and typesetters who used them? By looking at the earliest phototypeset books, manufacturers’ and printers’ type specimens, and printers’ archives 1950-1970 we can find out more about the time when the certainties of metal typography began to dissolve into the new world of film. Theme: Methods | 50 minutes

Tim Ahrens
Optical sizes

Sunday 21 September | 10:40 – 11:30 | Session A15 in Palace A

In which way exactly should I adjust the letters when designing optical sizes? This talk discusses size-specific adjustments of fonts from a type designer’s point of view. Historical, technical and perceptual background will be given as well as specific and differentiated advice on how to treat the various aspects of a design that can be modified. The material presented is based on MA course work at the University of Reading, which included the analysis of metal and digital fonts, and interviews with some of the most prominent contemporary designers. This research revealed some contrasting views and approaches, and unexpected solutions. Theme: Methods | 50 minutes

Ken Barber, Tal Leming
Pac-Man fever, quantum mechanics and the design of digital type

Sunday 21 September | 11:40 – 12:30 | Session A16 in Palace A

What do classic arcade gaming and subatomic particles have to do with typeface design? Maybe not as much as Ken and Tal would like to think, but nonetheless the inspiration behind inventive font features often comes from the most unlikely of places. Not only can the interplay of traditional type design and new technology profoundly impact the development of digital typefaces, but divergently unexpected sources can contribute to “intelligent” behavior in fonts, not to mention making them significantly easier to use. Referencing numerous cases studies, this presentation will demonstrate how outside influences— including probability theory and quantum physics—can lead to surprising font programming solutions. Theme: Methods | 50 minutes

Eben Sorkin
Contextual alternatives
The next big opportunity for enhancing Latin text face quality

Sunday 21 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | Session A17 in Palace A

Practicality and efficiency have constrained the text face in a way more profound than with any other kind of type. While this made sense in the past, and type designers have done an amazing job of making virtue from this constraint; we have also become too habituated to the constraint. So much so that now we sometimes have trouble imagining how the new freedom offered by OpenType contextual alternates could be used to subtly enhance quality and utility in text faces in the same way that optical correction for size, overshoots, or kerning can. Happily there are some digital faces that are beginning to explore this area and there is 5,000 years of tradition in scribal work, incunabula, lettering, calligraphy and stone carving to draw upon and even hints from the original Linotype drawings. Theme: Methods | 50 minutes

Oliver Linke
The Urge to Rule
Constructed Letterforms from Renaissance to Tomorrow

Sunday 21 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | Session B17 in Palace B

For some reason there has always been a certain desire to find the constructive skeleton or some kind of a “mathematically correct” description of lettershapes. Generations of designers have been searching for the best way to convert complicated characters into an easy formula, believing to discover the very essence of type. Meanwhile many have changed to another confession, where rulers become void and the impression of the eye is the only reliable guide line. With the advent of the computer, this schism in type design seemed to be given another revival. Type has become digital, shaping is done through mathematical equations, and often enough letters are cut down to a set of pixels. It’s about time to take a closer look, what’s really valuable about both approaches. Theme: Methods | 50 minutes


Other

Gerry Leonidas
Country Delegates
Meeting

Thursday 18 September | 17:30 – 18:00 | Meeting M01 in Palace A

Meeting of the ATypI country delegates. Theme: Other | 30 minutes

ATypI attendees
Conference Speakers
Meeting

Thursday 18 September | 17:30 – 18:00 | Meeting M02 in Palace B

All speakers of the main conference are requested to attend this meeting. Theme: Other | 30 minutes

John D. Berry, Vladimir Yefimov
Welcome and opening address

Friday 19 September | 09:00 – 09:30 | Plenary session A00 in Palace A Theme: Other | 30 minutes

 Typophile
Typophile Film Festival

Friday 19 September | 17:20 – 18:20 | Entertainment A07 in Palace A

The Typophile Film Fest is best described as a one-hour screening of a rare and unequaled selection of short typographic films. Hailing from countries all over the world, the films create a visual mashup of motion design, typographic animation and short stories. In years prior it has included broadcast motion design, documentaries and typographic eye candy from Trollbäck + Company, Strange Attractors, Erik Spiekermann, Nick Shinn, Font Bureau as well as many others. Theme: Other | 60 minutes

ATypI attendees
Evening Event

Friday 19 September | 18:30 – 19:30 | Plenary session in Other

TBD Theme: Other | 60 minutes

ATypI attendees
ATypI 08: the party

Saturday 20 September | 20:00 – 22:00 | Party in Other

Details will be announced. Theme: Other | 120 minutes

ATypI members
ATypI AGM

Sunday 21 September | 09:15 – 10:15 | Plenary session in Palace A

The ATypI Annual General Meeting is the place where members discuss and decide on the running and future of the organisation. All members are entitled to attend, speak and vote. Theme: Other | 60 minutes

ATypI attendees
Closing plenary

Sunday 21 September | 15:00 – 15:15 | Plenary session in Palace A Theme: Other | 15 minutes


Personalities

Susanne Dechant
50 women typographers in 50 years of ATypI

Friday 19 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | Session A04 in Palace A

The ATypI 2008 Brighton conference sharpened my awareness for the gender issue in the typography business: considerably fewer female designers were present, compared to the former days. Fewer and fewer friends have stayed in contact over the years (on the contrast to the men’s network) and I felt quite lost somehow. I remembered all these impressing design women I met in Boston, Reading or Barcelona, and I made a list of them on a paper napkin. With only little effort, I was able to list nearly 30 remarkable women. I hope that this summary can be a vivid mirror of many typeface generations, as I will frame my lecture from the old experienced to the new young participants in female type design. Theme: Personalities | 50 minutes

Heidrun Osterer
From Univers towards Avenir
On the professional career of Adrian Frutiger

Friday 19 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | Session A05 in Palace A

Having just finished writing a comprehensive monography on the professional career of Adrian Frutiger (with Philipp Stamm, to be published in October 2008 by Birkhäuser Verlag and Princeton Press), in my lecture I will give an overview about the origin and development of the typefaces of Adrian Frutiger, his professional work in his time, in the historical context (from the beginning of writing) and the reflection nowadays. Moreover, I will give a detailed analysis of some of his important typefaces like Univers, Frutiger and Avenir. Theme: Personalities | 50 minutes

Akira Kobayashi
PROGRAM UPDATE: Working with two type legends, Hermann Zapf and Adrian Frutiger
How they changed my life and how I changed theirs

Saturday 20 September | 17:20 – 18:10 | Session A14 in Palace A

Linotype type director talks about his work with Hermann Zapf and Adrian Frutiger Theme: Personalities | 50 minutes


Revivals

Jerry Kelly
Type revivals
Where did they come from? where have they been? Where are they going?

Friday 19 September | 09:40 – 10:30 | Session A01 in Palace A

Typographers often speak of the concept of historical revivals of earlier typefaces, but how well do we understand this important segment of type design? Through an illustrated lecture we will discuss what a type revival is, what different kinds there are, the origins of type revivals and the first examples of the practice and the flourishing of the practice in the first half of the twentieth century. Theme: Revivals | 50 minutes

John Downer
Revivals revisited

Friday 19 September | 11:00 – 11:50 | Session A02 in Palace A

To understand the intrinsic differences between plagiarism (normally regarded as a bad thing) and preservation (normally regarded as a good thing), we should look at various means by which newer typefaces are derived from older ones. There are indeed many approaches. Outlining them can be helpful in considering the practices surrounding revivalism in general: revivals, recuttings, reclamations — anthologies, surveys, remixes — knockoffs, clones, counterfeits — “me too”, copycat — reconsiderations, reevaluations, reinterpretations — homages, tributes, paeans — encores, sequels, reprises — extensions, spinoffs, variations — caricatures, parodies, burlesques. Theme: Revivals | 50 minutes

Nick Shinn
Scotch Modern
Fact and fiction

Friday 19 September | 12:00 – 12:50 | Session A03 in Palace A

This paper presents the revival of a mid-19th century typeface as a balance between the demands of authenticity (historical and cultural), and those of invention (meeting the needs of extensive OpenType features in multiple encodings—Latin, polytonic Greek, Cyrillic including Asian). Historical issues: a theory of Contextual Press Gain explains genre's physical characteristics; Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic models. Glyph proliferation: old-style figures for a modern face; unicase and swash capitals in three scripts. Management of alternates — in Greek: layered stylistic sets; in Bulgarian: orthography, aesthetics. Harmonization — in small capitals: optimizing x-height across scripts; diacritics (Latin extended); straight and Italic Greek: a divergent scheme. Theme: Revivals | 50 minutes

Frank E. Blokland
Now, then and perception

Saturday 20 September | 10:30 – 11:20 | Session A09 in Palace A

One needs a thorough knowledge of the historical development of the trades of the type designer, the font vendor and the typographer within the different style periods in order to determine one’s place in time and space is needed. Modern typographers make use of and mix typefaces from the different style periods without hesitation. Perhaps eclecticism is the main characteristic of our time. The image that people have of historical typefaces is in many cases based on revivals — perhaps without realizing that these revivals show as much of the original style period as of the period in which they were made. The view on history changes constantly. Frank E. Blokland will try to give more insight in the perception of the historical developments in the world of type, illustrating his point by showing parallels in the authentic music practice and in painting, especially what he calls the ‘Van Meegeren Aspect’. Theme: Revivals | 50 minutes


Screen

Si Daniels
“...mean bastards, even though Matthew did some cool stuff for them...”

Saturday 20 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | Session A11 in Palace A

A talk about Matthew Carter’s font design work for Microsoft. We use them every day, on the Web, in e-mail, and in print, and during the summer of 2007, in preparation for a TypeCon exhibition on the subject, Microsoft’s Si Daniels delved into the archives, interviewing participants and gathering material in an effort to uncover the unwritten history of Verdana, Georgia, and Tahoma. Theme: Screen | 50 minutes

Roger Black, Håkon Wium Lie, Thomas Phinney, Si Daniels, Bert Bos
The war over web fonts
Panel discussion

Saturday 20 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | Panel session A12 in Palace A

The typographer and Web designer’s dream of being able to use any font they want for Web page authoring is finally becoming a reality. Or is it? Why are there two competing approaches, and what does each one offer? What is their status in terms of standardization and implementation? Typography and Web publication guru Roger Black moderates presentations and discussions with promoter of native fonts on Web servers Håkon Lie (Opera) and proponents of the more protected EOT format (Si Daniels of Microsoft, Thomas Phinney of Adobe). Theme: Screen | 50 minutes

Roger Black
PROGRAM UPDATE: Type and the Web
What are we going to do?

Saturday 20 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | Session A13 in Palace A

New York designer and art director Roger Black about type on the Web. Theme: Screen | 50 minutes


The Old · The New

Oleg Genisaretskiy
In praise of the letter
Keynote Presentation

Thursday 18 September | 19:00 – 19:50 | Keynote session K01 in Palace A

Being a book person, I noticed long ago that the quality of my reading much depends on the type the book is set in, and its page layout. That dependency deepened with the advent of computers when a selection of type best matching my current state of mind became possible. Learning from the views and writings of a number of remarkable people helped me understand, in my own way, the reasons of that preoccupation. A book artist Boris Zhuravsky explained why a book page in the field of vision of a reader is unconsciously perceived by him as a human face looking at him. Evgeny Shiffers, a stage and film director and a theologian, once conjectured that all scripts originate from those letterforms that appear to us among the images of the “thin doze”, half-way between the vigil and the deep sleep. The remarkable Russian writer Sigismund Kryzanowski wrote in his story The club of letter killers about an imaginary writers’ game that allowed the players to manage without any letters. And Joseph Brodsky concluded his In praise of boredom with a eulogy to the lower- case letter. By drawing those observations together I should like to express, with all clarity I am capable of, my firm conviction that the book, the page, the line, and the letter shall forever remain the truest and the trustiest pillars of our sanity and humanity. Theme: The Old · The New | 50 minutes


TypeTech by ATypI

Thomas Phinney
TypeTech Forum
Welcome

Wednesday 17 September | 09:30 – 09:40 | TypeTech TTW1 in Palace A

Opening of Day 1 of the TypeTech forum, ATypI TypeTech/TypeTools forum’s first track, presented by Association Typographique Internationale. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 10 minutes

Si Daniels, Thomas Phinney
OpenType 1.6 developments

Wednesday 17 September | 09:40 – 10:30 | TypeTech TT01 in Palace A

Si Daniels and Thomas Phinney give an overview of new OpenType spec developments of the past year, which have gone into the published version 1.5 spec and the coming version 1.6 spec, as well as being planned for the ISO Open Font Format spec. Changes include both clarifications and new functionality. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Emil Yakupov
TrueType hinting
— do we still need it?

Wednesday 17 September | 11:00 – 11:50 | TypeTech TT02 in Palace A

ClearType text rendering with subpixel positioning in horizontal direction noticeably increases the quality of text on screen and eliminates importance of hinting. But there are still some defects in letter appearance that looks even worse when they are just few. Presentation will show and compare samples of texts set with unhinted fonts, autohinted fonts and manually hinted fonts. Typical defects will be analyzed. Time consumption of hinting for black and white rendering, grayscale rendering and ClearType rendering will be estimated and compared. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Karin von Ompteda
The role of typeface design within the scientific study of legibility

Wednesday 17 September | 12:00 – 12:50 | TypeTech TT03 in Palace A

In the pre-digital era, manipulating typeface parameters to study their influence on legibility was difficult. This contributed to a common practice amongst legibility researchers to test unmodified commercial typefaces differing in numerous parameters, ultimately resulting in a paucity of controlled investigation. The advent of digital typeface design has seen over the past decade scientists develop typefaces for experimental purposes. While this has advanced knowledge, a lack of connection to the design community has limited the practical application of findings. This presentation will argue that practice-based typeface design research has a critical role to play in the scientific study of legibility. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

José Scaglione
From laser printer to offset press
A one-way road

Wednesday 17 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | TypeTech TT04 in Palace A

Laser printers have an utterly important role in the professional practice of typeface design, which involves a significant level of trial and error until its completion. Nowadays printers are fast, accurate, and deliver a high quality output that allow type designers to evaluate their work in progress and make the appropriate corrections in just a few minutes. Although this is an enormous advance from the smoke-proof days, the gap between laser and offset printing must be acknowledged in order to develop more accurate testing procedures for the design of typefaces. This lecture is based on a piece of research in which the technical variables that affect the output in both printing technologies were assessed. The answers and questions that emerged are important for a conscious approach to type design and testing procedures, particularly for text typography. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Thomas Phinney, Si Daniels
Tech of Web fonts implementation

Wednesday 17 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | TypeTech TT05 in Palace A

How does the CSS referencing of Web fonts actually work, when used either with original font files or EOT fonts on a Web server? How "safe" are the fonts in either case, and what additional measures can be used? Following the technical discussion, there will be open discussion with the audience as to their interests and concerns, as well as what different foundries' EULAs currently allow, and what they intend to allow in the future. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Keith Chi-hang Tam
Issues in Chinese text design

Wednesday 17 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | TypeTech TT06 in Palace A

This presentation will explore the issues that arise when designing with Chinese text. The focus will be on historical and contemporary practices of text design in Chinese books and publications. Linguistic, literary, aesthetic and technological issues will be explored. Approaches to handling continuous text, styles of characters, page layout, structure, as well as graphic and spatial cueing will be examined. This presentation considers calligraphy, xylographic printing and typesetting (both mechanical and digital) as a continuum. It is hoped that this presentation will afford a different vantage point in understanding Western typographic practices. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Thomas Phinney
TypeTech Forum
Welcome

Thursday 18 September | 09:30 – 09:40 | TypeTech TTW2 in Palace A

Opening of Day 2 of the TypeTech forum, ATypI TypeTech/TypeTools forum’s first track, presented by Association Typographique Internationale. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 10 minutes

Denis Moyogo Jacquerye
African fonts and the open source community

Thursday 18 September | 09:40 – 10:30 | TypeTech TT07 in Palace A

This presentation will discuss the requirements of orthographies African languages in Latin scripts and show how to implement these with modern fonts technologies. Good practices, mistakes and evaluation of fonts for African languages with high requirements will be discussed. The presentation will also showcase various font projects that are benefitting from the input, feedback and work of the Open Source community. A description of the work done to extend various Open Source fonts will be given, both in design (glyphs, variants, etc.) and in technologies (OpenType, automation of some steps with scripting, etc.). Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Thomas Milo
Grammar of proto-typographic Arabic Naskh

Thursday 18 September | 11:00 – 11:50 | TypeTech TT08 in Palace A

This study is based on the observation that the many instances of pre-typographic, manuscript Naskh writing, share a single ideal. An analysis on the basis of the linguistic concepts of competence and performance leads to fascinating results. From manuscript evidence, and early Middle Eastern type designs, a script grammar (un système grammatical) can be inferred. The result is a descriptive grammar of naskh script, based on Ottoman practice over a period of three centuries. By analogy with linguistics, such a grammar can serve both as a theoretical model and as a yardstick for understanding and systematic description of variations in performance. Religious texts from within the Ottoman calligraphic domain were selected as authoritative samples, for these are without exception meticulously executed and became the prototype for the emerging Middle Eastern typography. The norm of Naskh competence is well documented in the form of the heritage of Ottoman Qurʾāns, that also show rich variation in execution. Non-religious texts tend to be written more casually, but are clearly performances based on the same model that contribute significantly to the examined corpus. A computer model of Naskh script grammar was created, that enabled the author to present exhaustive lookup tables with a grammatical solution for all web-attested Arabic letter blocks. This study targets arabists, orientalists in general, linguists as well as the students and designers of Arabic typefaces. In addition to that, every effort has been made to make this study informative for the interested layman. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Titus Nemeth
Tasmeem
Typeface design in Arabic

Thursday 18 September | 12:00 – 12:50 | TypeTech TT09 in Palace A

Tasmeem, a new software jointly developed by WinSoft and DecoType, offers new perspectives for Arabic typeface design. Titus Nemeth was invited by the developers to be the first third party designer to get insights of the system, its methodologies and to actually design for Tasmeem. He was asked to convert his existing Nassim typeface from an OpenType based rendering, to rendering within Tasmeem. Titus Nemeth presents his experience working on this project, explains concepts of the Tasmeem software and their implications for the design process. The new opportunities given to Arabic typeface design and typography are far reaching and have yet to be discovered by the design community. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Tim Ahrens
Font Remix Tools

Thursday 18 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | TypeTech TT10 in Palace A

This presentation demonstrates the Font Remix Tools, a set of macros for FontLab Studio that allows to automate parts of the design process. Unlike most other macros, they do not require any programming skills to use – their user interface is designed to provide the automation of automation. Using examples, the functionality of Tools is explained and tips are given on how to set up an efficient workflow. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Atilla Korap
Automation in font production

Thursday 18 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | TypeTech TT11 in Palace A

This presentation will be about the benefits and possibilities of automation in font development. It will show what needs to be taken into consideration before automating font development tasks. Possible approaches to automated tasks as well as examples will be discussed. An overview of tools and approaches will be given. The presentation will cover many steps of font development, starting from the workfile organisation and ending with font generation. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes

Ted Harrison
Using your EULA to protect your fonts

Thursday 18 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | TypeTech TT12 in Palace A

This talk will discuss the importance of the End User License Agreement to the font developer as a means of protecting their work and as a marketing tool. We will go over the most important features of a EULA, what should be included, and how to enforce it. We’ll also discuss the threat of embedding and how to use the EULA to combat it. EULAs can also be useful in selling fonts. We’ll talk about how to include your EULA in your licensing strategy and how to make it work for you as a sales tool. A demo of the electronic EULA abstract tool will be included. Theme: TypeTech by ATypI | 50 minutes


TypeTools by DTL

Frank E. Blokland
TypeTools Forum by DTL
Welcome

Thursday 18 September | 09:30 – 09:40 | TypeTech FMW in Palace B

Opening of Day 2 of the TypeTools forum, ATypI TypeTech/TypeTools forum’s second track. The first day is presented by Fontlab Ltd, the second day is presented by Dutch Type Library (DTL). Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 10 minutes

Jürgen Willrodt, Frank E. Blokland
Automating font production processes

Thursday 18 September | 09:40 – 10:30 | TypeTech FM01 in Palace B

The very versatile and easy to edit Ikarus based file structure of DTL FontMaster, in which the glyph descriptions are cleverly kept separated from metrics and naming info, is tailored for sophisticated organizing and batching font production processes and for which reproducibility and stability are keywords. The following subjects (amongst others) will be explained in detail: Glyph databases: organizing, building, merging and enhancing. Glyph mapping: managing Character Layout files. Name tables: editing UFM and OpenType Layout features files. Metrics: metrics and kern pairs editing/generation. OpenType Layout features: editing features files and automating the features generation. Font generation: batching (with command files). Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 50 minutes

Frank E. Blokland
Automating type design processes

Thursday 18 September | 11:00 – 11:50 | TypeTech FM02 in Palace B

Not only font production processes can be automated; to a certain extend also the type design process can be done by software itself. An introduction on the (possible) automation of type design processes and the presentation of the first version of the DTL LetterModeller application. This presentation is partly based on the PhD research on Harmonic systems in the Latin script that the speaker is currently doing at Leiden University. Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 50 minutes

Jürgen Willrodt
Editing OpenType fonts
OT Master

Thursday 18 September | 12:00 – 12:50 | TypeTech FM03 in Palace B

OT Master is a powerful new generation tool for the direct extensive editing of OpenType CFF and TTF fonts, which is available for Mac OS X and Windows. The many functions include the adding and editing of glyphs, the revision of (name) tables, consistency checking and the handling of OpenType Layout features. The following subjects (amongst others) will be explained in detail: Name tables: checking and modifying. Line spacing: checking and modifying. Glyphs: editing and adding. OpenType Layout features: importing a features file. Arabic fonts: creating Arabic fonts including mark positioning. Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 50 minutes

Peter Rosenfeld
Re-inventing font technology

Thursday 18 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | TypeTech FM04 in Palace B

Much of the actual font technology finds its origin in the Ikarus system, invented by Dr. Peter Karow in the early 1970s and developed till this day by URW++ under supervision of Dr. Jürgen Willrodt. A historical overview and explanation of more than thirty years of Spitzentechnologie by URW++’s managing director, who was directly engaged in the Ikarus development over the past thirty-plus years. Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 50 minutes

Frank E. Blokland
Crossing borders
The best of different worlds

Thursday 18 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | TypeTech FM05 in Palace B

Running FM under Mac OS X / X11 and Linux in a Wine bottle. Integrating FM in workflows based on other font production tools. TypeTech attendees who use third party software are invited for a direct comparison of the functionality of their font production tools with FM’s and to discuss (the necessity of) possible workflow integrations (or even migration). Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 50 minutes

Frank E. Blokland, Peter Rosenfeld
Reception
To celebrate a long lasting co-operation

Thursday 18 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | TypeTech FM06 in Palace B

The Dutch Type Library and URW have been working together for more than seventeen years in the field of font (tools) production now and we would like to celebrate this long lasting co-operation and friendship — together with all ATypI TypeTech Forum attendees — with some good food and drinks. Also the booklet “Comprehensive Notes on the Design of Cyrillic Letters” by the Finnish type designer Hanna Hakala and typeset in the preliminary version of DTL Valiance will be presented here. Theme: TypeTools by DTL | 50 minutes


TypeTools by FontLab

Ted Harrison
TypeTools Forum by FontLab
Welcome

Wednesday 17 September | 09:30 – 09:40 | TypeTech FLW in Palace B

Opening of Day 1 of the TypeTools forum, ATypI TypeTech/TypeTools forum’s second track. The first day is presented by Fontlab Ltd, the second day is presented by Dutch Type Library (DTL). Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 10 minutes

Ted Harrison
Photofonts in print
Colorful typography using InDesign and QuarkXPress

Wednesday 17 September | 09:40 – 10:30 | TypeTech FL01 in Palace B

Several years ago, Fontlab Ltd. introduced the Photofont technology that removed some limitations of traditional outline fonts by allowing the type designer to use the full RGB palette and alpha transparency. The first products to support the Photofont format were BitFonter, the professional bitmap font editor that allows designers to create photofonts, and Photofont Start, a simple plugin for Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator, that allows designers to use photofonts in their creations. Fontlab Ltd. is now adding three new products to the Photofont family: Photofont QX and Photofont ID are plugins for QuarkXPress and Adobe InDesign that enable designers to use photofonts in their page layouts, while Photofont WebReady makes it possible to use photofonts on the web. In this session, we will introduce the QuarkXPress and InDesign plugins. Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 50 minutes

Adam Twardoch
Family matters
Making fonts work as a family using FontLab Studio

Wednesday 17 September | 11:00 – 11:50 | TypeTech FL02 in Palace B

When developing a font family in OpenType format, a number of font parameters needs to be synchronized between the fonts so that applications can “see” the final product as a coherent family. We will discuss several different strategies of approaching the family and style naming and linkning inside a family. We will also discuss the importance of vertical metrics in a family, and will discuss synchronizing them across styles, and about other Font Info parameters that the designer should take care of when preparing the fonts for shipping. Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 50 minutes

Adam Twardoch
Crystal clear
Optimizing font screen quality in FontLab Studio

Wednesday 17 September | 12:00 – 12:50 | TypeTech FL03 in Palace B

Even though screen resolutions become bigger and the font rasterizers more sophisticated, the need for optimizing font screen quality does not entirely go away. FontLab Studio 5 brings various general font screen quality parameters such as alignment zones and standard stems, which can be automatically or manually edited to achieve best results. In addition to the PostScript autohinter built into FontLab Studio 5, there is now also the new Adobe autohinter that is available as part of the AFDKO package and integrates into FLS as a macro (more native integration is planned for a future release of FLS). Finally, the manual tools for working with hinting in FLS5 are virtually unchallenged. We will explain how to combine both automatic and manual hinting to quickly achieve best results. Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 50 minutes

Adam Twardoch
Setting web typography free
Using custom Photofont and OpenType fonts on the web

Wednesday 17 September | 14:00 – 14:50 | TypeTech FL04 in Palace B

The web does not allow us to use the countless typefaces that we use in print. We can use non-default fonts in certain elements of a website using Flash and graphics, but in the searchable text portions, only a few standard fonts such as Verdana can be used. In this session, we will combine different tools (Adobe Dreamweaver, FontLab TypeTool, Photofont WebReady, Microsoft WEFT) and techniques (linked OpenType fonts, embedded OpenType fonts, Flash font replacement using sIFR, and embedded Photofonts) to obtain web pages that use non-default fonts, work equally well in Internet Explorer, Safari, Firefox and Opera, and remain valid HTML and CSS, ensuring findability and standards-compliance. Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 50 minutes

Yuri Yarmola
Letterfitting in FontLab Studio
Glyph metrics and kerning: present and future

Wednesday 17 September | 15:00 – 15:50 | TypeTech FL05 in Palace B

In this session we will discuss various productivity tools offered by FontLab Studio in the area of letter fitting and kerning: the Metrics Window, the Classes panel, the measurement line, class kerning, exceptions, expanding and compressing kerning. We will also show an early preview of what improvements the next version of FontLab Studio will bring in this area. Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 50 minutes

Adam Twardoch
Scotch Modern backstage
OpenType case study of a pan-European text font family

Wednesday 17 September | 16:20 – 17:10 | TypeTech FL06 in Palace B

In this complementary session to Nick Shinn’s “Scotch Modern. Fact and fiction” main conference presentation, Adam Twardoch will share his experiences in defining the OpenType Layout features for Scotch Modern, Nick’s new pan-European text font family. Glyph naming and encoding principles used in Scotch Modern’s multilingual character set (Western, Central European, Cyrillic, monotonic and polytonic Greek plus glyph variants) will be explained, followed by recommendations which features should be included in European fonts. Finally, specific recommendations about the technical implementation of some of the most popular features will be given, taking into account recent advances made by Adobe, Microsoft and Apple. Theme: TypeTools by FontLab | 50 minutes


Workshop

Pascal Naji Zoghbi
Arabic Kufi script
Workshop part 1

Wednesday 17 September | 09:30 – 13:00 | Workshop W01 in W1

A workshop for non-Arabic speakers about Arabic Kufi script. See http://29letters.wordpress.com/2007/09/01/kufi-workshop-for-non-arab-participants-in-amsterdam/ for previous workshop information. This workshop takes place in two parts: on Wednesday 9:30—13:00 and on Thursday 14:00—17:30. In the first part, Pascal will give a lecture on Arabic Kufi script, and participants will start practicing the Kufi script and creating units. In the second part, participants will create their own words and patterns using the square Kufi script. The workshop is open to all participants of the main conference. The maximum number of workshop participants is 20. You must register to the workshop during your main conference registration. Participants are requested to bring 15 USD in cash to the workshop to pay the “supplies fee” for the pencils, pens, ink and paper. Theme: Workshop | 210 minutes

Akira Kobayashi, Nadine Chahine
Linotype type design student workshop
Closed session, part 1

Wednesday 17 September | 09:30 – 17:00 | Workshop W05 in W2

ATypI and Linotype have invited ten excellent, typographically-minded junior or senior Cyrillic-writing students to participate in a typography-intensive workshop that includes an introduction to the world of letterforms and the basics of type design. In two closed sessions, on Wednesday 9:30–17:00, and on Thursday 9:30–12:00, the invited workshop participants will work closely with Linotype’s Akira Kobayashi and Nadine Chahine to create and refine their own designs. The workshop will conclude with a public viewing of the workshop results on Thursday 12:00–13:00 — come and see the progress the students have made! Theme: Workshop | 450 minutes

Yomar Augusto
Kalligraphos
Experimental calligraphy workshop

Wednesday 17 September | 14:00 – 17:30 | Workshop W02 in W1

Calligraphy is the basis for the typography work. As an art form it has almost been forgotten in today’s graphic digital environment. Designers don’t handwrite anymore, bitmaps have become more important than ink and computers are now the main tool in the creative process. Kalligraphos is an experimental calligraphy workshop whose main objectives are: Taking the students away from the computer screen to explore the art of drawing letters by hand as a way to improve their technical backgrounds, help them focus their creative energy on the handmade process and stimulate a personal graphic research. The program explores calligraphy and other medias such as illustration, collage, painting, photography, graphic journals (sketchbooks and altered books), all of these combined to present for each student a rich ground for intuitive exploration. During the workshop, participants will practice using writing tools. The workshop is open to all participants of the main conference. The maximum number of workshop participants is 20. You must register to the workshop during your main conference registration. Participants are requested to bring 15 USD in cash to the workshop to pay the “supplies fee” for the pencils, pens, ink and paper. Theme: Workshop | 210 minutes

John Downer
Lettering
Workshop

Thursday 18 September | 09:30 – 13:00 | Workshop W03 in W1

The workshop is open to all participants of the main conference. The maximum number of workshop participants is 20. You must register to the workshop during your main conference registration. Participants are requested to bring 15 USD in cash to the workshop to pay the “supplies fee” for the pencils, pens, ink and paper. Considering the ATypI/2008 conference theme, I propose a demonstration that will include both old and new sign painting techniques. In former times, sign painters didn't have all of the timesaving materials and tools we have today. Contemporary sign painters use Scotch™ tape to mask the baseline and cap line, and paint rollers to cover vast areas. Rollers can also be used to achieve very soft blending of colors. Workshop attendees will be given a chronology of paint application methods, as well as a chance to see letters appear spontaneously. Latin & Cyrillic examples will be created on the spot, to illustrate that brush-painted letters can serve as inspiration for original typefaces -- all without preying on existing typefaces to create new ones. (This point ties in well with the topic of my talk at the conference). Participants will also be afforded a chance to try their hands at rendering letterforms with a lettering brush. Theme: Workshop | 210 minutes

Akira Kobayashi, Nadine Chahine
Linotype type design student workshop
Closed session, part 2

Thursday 18 September | 09:30 – 12:00 | Workshop W05 in W2

ATypI and Linotype have invited ten excellent, typographically-minded junior or senior Cyrillic-writing students to participate in a typography-intensive workshop that includes an introduction to the world of letterforms and the basics of type design. In two closed sessions, on Wednesday 9:30–17:00, and on Thursday 9:30–12:00, the invited workshop participants will work closely with Linotype’s Akira Kobayashi and Nadine Chahine to create and refine their own designs. The workshop will conclude with a public viewing of the workshop results on Thursday 12:00–13:00 — come and see the progress the students have made! Theme: Workshop | 150 minutes

Pascal Naji Zoghbi
Arabic Kufi script
Workshop part 2

Thursday 18 September | 14:00 – 17:30 | Workshop W01 in W1

A workshop for non-Arabic speakers about Arabic Kufi script. See http://29letters.wordpress.com/2007/09/01/kufi-workshop-for-non-arab-participants-in-amsterdam/ for previous workshop information. This workshop takes place in two parts: on Wednesday 9:30—13:00 and on Thursday 14:00—17:30. In the first part, Pascal will give a lecture on Arabic Kufi script, and participants will start practicing the Kufi script and creating units. In the second part, participants will create their own words and patterns using the square Kufi script. The workshop is open to all participants of the main conference. The maximum number of workshop participants is 20. You must register to the workshop during your main conference registration. Participants are requested to bring 15 USD in cash to the workshop to pay the “supplies fee” for the pencils, pens, ink and paper. Theme: Workshop | 210 minutes

Vladimir Yefimov
Latin+Cyrillic, designing multiscript fonts
Workshop in Russian

Thursday 18 September | 14:00 – 17:30 | Workshop W04 in W2

Multiscript type design: Typefaces including both Latin and Cyrillic characters in Russia and abroad. Old and new approaches to multiscript type design. OpenType fonts may contain huge quantity of glyphs from different script systems, for example Latin, Cyrillic and Greek. However there are some difficulties in designing multiscript fonts because its author used to draw letters of his native script and sometimes the features of alien characters are not so well familiar to him. Experience of multiscript type designing in Russia in the past and the present allows to hope such difficulties are surmountable in process of acquaintance to features of each script system. This workshop will be conducted in Russian language only and is aimed primarily at Russian designers. The workshop will start with Vladimir Yefimov’s lecture and conclude in a discussion. The maximum number of participants is 50. The workshop is free to all participants who have registered to the main conference, but a separate registration to the workshop will be required (it will be announced at a later time). Theme: Workshop | 210 minutes


World

David Březina
General issues of multi-script typography

Saturday 20 September | 11:40 – 12:30 | Session A10 in Palace A

An overview of the most common typographic issues in publications which involve two or more scripts with a horizontal reading direction (e.g. Latin, Indic, Arabic, Hebrew, etc.). The talk aims to explain the problems systematically from a partially-objective point of view and show some of the possible solutions. Theme: World | 50 minutes

J. Victor Gaultney
Fonts for every language
New types for cultural treasures

Sunday 21 September | 10:40 – 11:30 | Session B15 in Palace B

People around the world speak over 6000 languages, and millions of them have no way to type their language on a computer. There are no adequate fonts for their writing system. Centuries-old languages face possible extinction. But that is changing. A growing number of individuals and groups are coming together to provide solutions. This talk will illustrate the breadth and variety of writing systems around the world, the problems faced in supporting them, and some of the exciting initiatives that are in motion to address this very great need: the Open Font License, Graphite, the OLPC and ScriptSource. Theme: World | 50 minutes